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COMMITTEE.

Chairman—LORD BROUGHAM, F.R.S., Member of the National Institute of France. Vice-Chairman—EARL SPENCER. Treasurer—SIR I. L. GOLDSMID, Bart., F.R. and R.A.S.

Captain Beaufort, R.N., F.R. and R.A.S. Lord Campbell. Professor Carey, A.M. John Conolly, M.D. illiam Coulson, Esq. The Bishop of St. David’s. Sir Henry De la Beche, F.R.S, Professor De Morgan, F.R.A.S, Lord Denman.

Q.C. obhouse, Bart., M.P, Thos. Hodgkin, M.D, i Henry B. Ker, Esq.

Professor Key, A.M.

John G. S. Lefevre, Esq., A.M. Sir Denis Le Marchant, Bart.

Sir Charles Lemon, Bart., M.P. George C. Lewis, Esq., A.M. Professor Long, A.M.

Right Hon. S. Lushington, D.C.L. Professor Malden, A.M.

A. T. Malkin, Esq., A.M.

Mr. Serjeant Manning.

Lord Nugent.

Sir Thomas Phillipps, Bart. Professor Quain. =

Professor Thomson, M.D., F.L.S. Thomas Vardon, Esq.

Jacob Waley, Esq., A.M.

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THOMAS COATES, Esq., Secretary, No. 42, Bedford Square.

UNDER THE SUPERINTENDENCE OF THE SOCIETY FOR THE DIFFUSION OF USEFUL KNOWLEDGE

Tih POG

BY WILLIAM YOUATT

HEAD OF BLOODHOUND

LONDON CHARLES KNIGHT AND CO. 22 LUDGATE STREET

1845

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

CHAPTER

I.—THE EARLY HISTORY AND ZOOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION OF THE DOG

Il.—THE VARIETIES OF THE DOG.—FIRST DIVISION

Ill.—THE VARIETIES OF THE DOG.—SECOND DIVISION IV.—THE VARIETIES OF THE DOG.—THIRD DIVISION

V.—THE GOOD QUALITIES OF THE DOG; THE SENSE OF SMELL; INTELLIGENCE; MORAL QUALITIES; DOG- CARTS; CROPPING; TAILING ; BREAKING-IN ; DOG- PITS; DOG-STEALING VI—DESCRIPTION OF THE SKELETON. DISEASES OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM :—FITS; TURNSIDE; EPILEPSY ; CHOREA ; RHEUMATISM AND PALSY VII.—RABIES VIll.—_THE EYE AND ITS DISEASES IX.—THE EAR AND ITS DISEASES

X.—ANATOMY OF THE NOSE AND MOUTH; AND DISEASES OF THE NOSE AND OTHER PARTS OF THE FACE.— THE SENSE OF SMELL; THE TONGUE; THE LIPS; THE TEETH; THE LARYNX; BRONCHOCELE; PHLEG- MONOUS TUMOUR .

XL—ANATOMY AND DISEASES OF THE CHEST: THE DIA- PHRAGM ; THE PERICARDIUM; THE HEART ; PLEU- RISY; PNEUMONIA ; SPASMODIC COUGH

CONTENTS. CHAPTER PAGE

XIL.—ANATOMY OF THE GULLET, STOMACH, AND INTESTINES: TETANUS ; ENTERITIS; PERITONITIS; COLIC; CAL- CULUS IN THE INTESTINES; INTUSSUSCEPTION ; DIARRHG@A ; DYSENTERY ; COSTIVENESS; DROPSY ; THE LIVER; JAUNDICE; THE SPLEEN AND PANCREAS; INFLAMMATION OF THE KIDNEY; CALCULUS; IN- FLAMMATION OF THE BLADDER; RUPTURE OF THE BLADDER; WORMS; FISTULA IN THE ANUS

XIIJ.—BLEEDING; TORSION; CASTRATION; PARTURITION; AND SOME DISEASES CONNECTED WITH THE ORGANS OF GENERATION

XIV.—THE DISTEMPER

XV.—SMALL-POX; MANGE; WARTS; CANCER; FUNGUS HÆMA- TODES; SORE FEET

XVI.—FRACTURES

XVII._MEDICINES USED IN THE TREATMENT OF THE DISEASES OF THE DOG

APPENDIX.—NEW LAWS OF COURSING

A POG

CHAPTER I. THE EARLY HISTORY AND ZOOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION OF THE DOG.

S Nis Doe, next to the human being, ranks highest in the scale of in- telligence, and was evidently designed to be the companion and the friend of man. We exact the services of other animals, and, the task being performed, we dismiss them to their accustomed food and rest: but several of the varieties of the dog follow us to our home; they are a with many of our pleasures and wants, and guard our sleeping

ours.

The first animal of the domestication of which we have any account was the sheep. Abel was a keeper of sheep.” It is difficult to believe that any long time would pass before the dog—who now in every country of the world is the companion of the shepherd, and the director or guardian of the sheep—would be enlisted in the service of man.

From the earliest known history he was the protector of the habitation of the human being. At the feet of the dares, those household deities who were supposed to protect the abodes of men, the figure of a barking dog was often placed. In every age, and almost in every part of the globe, he has played a principal part in the labours, the dangers, and the pleasures of the chace.

In process of time man began to surround himself with many servants from among the lower animals, but among them all he had only one friend—the dog; one animal only whose service was voluntary, and who

- was susceptible of disinterested affection and gratitude. In every country, and in every time, there has existed between man and the dog a connexion different from that which is observed between him and any other animal. The ox and the sheep submit to our control, but their affections are prin- Cipally, if not solely, confined to themselves. They submit to us, but they can rarely be said to love, or even to recognise us, except as connected with the supply of their wants.

The horse will share some of our pleasures. He enjoys the chace as Much as does his rider; and, when contending for victory on the course, he feels the full influence of emulation. Remembering the pleasure he has experienced with his master, or the daily supply of food from the hand of the groom, he often exhibits evident tokens of recognition ; but that is founded on a selfish principle—he neighs that he may be fed, and his affections are easily transferred.

a Gen. iv. 2.

F f le

EARLY HISTORY OF THE DOG.

The dog is the only animal that is capable of disinterested affection. He is the only one that regards the human being as his companion, and follows him as his friend; the only one that seems to possess a natural . desire to be useful to him, or from a spontaneous impulse attaches himself toman. We take the bridle from the mouth of the horse, and turn him free into the pasture, and he testifies his joy in his partially recovered liberty. We exact from the dog the service that is required of him, and he still follows us. He solicits to be continued as our companion and our friend. Many an expressive action tells us how much he is pleased and thankful. He shares in our abundance, and he is content with the scantiest and most humble fare. He loves us while living, and has been known to pine away on the grave of his master.

As an animal of draught the dog is highly useful in some countries. What would become of the inhabitants of the northern regions, if the dog were not harnessed to the sledge, and the Laplander, and the Greenlander, and the Kamtchatkan drawn, and not unfrequently at the rate of nearly a hundred miles a day, over the snowy wastes? In Newfoundland, the timber, one of the most important articles of commerce, is drawn to the water-side by the docile but ill-used dog: and we need only to cross the British Channel in order to see how useful, and, generally speaking, how happy, a beast of draught the dog can be.

Though, in our country, and to its great disgrace, this employment of the dog has been accompanied by such wanton and shameful cruelty, that the Legislature—somewhat hastily confounding the abuse of a thing with its legitimate purpose—forbade ‘the appearance of the dog-cart in the metropolitan districts, and were inclined to extend this prohibition through the whole kingdom, it is much to be desired that a kindlier and better feeling may gradually prevail, and that this animal, humanely treated, may return to the discharge of the services of which nature has rendered him capable, and which prove the greatest source of happiness to him while discharging them to the best of his power.

In another and very important particular, as the preserver of human life, the history of the dog will be most interesting. The writer of this work has seen a Newfoundland dog who, on five distinct occasions, pre- served the life of a human being; and it is said of the noble quadruped whose remains constitute one of the most interesting specimens in the museum of Berne, that forty persons were rescued by him from impending destruction.

When this friend and servant of man dies, he does not or may not cease to be useful; for in many countries, and to a far greater extent than is generally imagined, his skin is useful for gloves, or leggings, or mats, or hammercloths ; and, while even the Romans occasionally fattened him for the table, and esteemed his flesh a dainty, many thousands of people in Asia, Africa, and America, now breed him expressly for food.

If the publication of the present work should throw some additional light on the good qualities of this noble animal ; if it should enable us to derive more advantage from the services that he can render—to train him more expeditiously and fully for the discharge of those services—to pro- tect him from the abuses to which he is exposed, and to mitigate or remove some of the diseases which his connection with man has entailed upon him ; if any of these purposes be accomplished, we shall derive consider- able useful knowledge” as well as pleasure from the perusal of the present volume.

EARLY HISTORY OF THE DOG. 3

Some controversy has arisen with regard to the origin of the dog. Professor Thomas Bell, to whom we are indebted for a truly valuable history of the British quadrupeds, traces him to the wolf. He says, and it is perfectly true, that the osteology of the wolf does not differ materially from that of the dog more than that of the different kinds of dogs differs ; that the cranium is similar, and they agree in nearly all the other essen- tial points; that the dog and wolf will readily breed with each other, and that their progeny, thus obtained, will again mingle with the dog. There IS one circumstance, however, which seems to mark a decided difference between the two animals: the eye of the dog of every country and species has a circular pupil, but the position or form of the pupil is oblique in the wolf. Professor Bell gives an ingenious but not admissible reason for this. He attributes the forward direction of the eyes in the dog to the Constant habit, for many successive generations, of looking towards their ` master, and obeying his voice :” but no habit of this kind could by possi- bility produce any such effect. It should also be remembered that, in every part of the globe in which the wolf is found, this form of the pupil, and a peculiar setting on of the curve of the tail, and a singularity in the voice, cannot fail of being observed; to which may be added, that the dog exists in every latitude and in every climate, while the habitation of the wolf is confined to certain parts of the globe...

There is also a marked difference in the temper and habits of the two.

he dog is, generally speaking, easily manageable, but nothing will, in the majority of cases, render the wolf moderately tractable. There are, however, exceptions to this. The author remembers a bitch wolf at the Zoological Gardens that would always come to the front bars of her den to be caressed as soon as any one that she knew approached. She had puppies while there, and she brought her little ones in her mouth to be noticed by the spectators ; so eager, indeed, was she that they should share with her in the notice of her friends, that she killed them all in succession ee the bars of her den as she brought them forcibly forward to be

ondled.

M. F. Cuvier gives an account of a young wolf who followed his master everywhere, and showed a degree of affection and submission scarcely inferior to the domesticated dog. His master being unavoidably absent, he was sent to the menagerie, where he pined for his loss, and would scarcely take any food for a considerable time. At length, how- ever, he attached himself to his keepers, and appeared to have forgotten his former associate. At the expiration of eighteen months his master returned, and, the moment his voice was heard, the wolf recognised him, and lavished on his old friend the most affectionate caresses. A second Separation followed, which lasted three years, and again the long-remem- bered voice was recognised, and replied to with impatient cries; after which, rushing on his master, he licked his face with every mark of joy, menacing his keepers, towards whom he had just before been exhibiting

Ondness, A third separation occurred, and he became gloomy and melancholy. He suffered the caresses of none but his keepers, and towards them he often manifested the original ferocity of his species.

These stories, however, go only a little way to prove that the dog and the wolf have one common origin.

It may appear singular that in both the Old Testament and the New the dog was spoken of almost with abhorrence. He ranked ate the |

B

4 EARLY HISTORY OF THE DOG.

unclean beasts. The traffic in him and the price of him were considered as an abomination, and were forbidden to be offered in the sanctuary in the discharge of any vow.a i

One grand object in the institution of the Jewish ritual was to preserve the Israelites from the idolatry which at that time prevailed among every other people. Dogs were held in considerable veneration by the Egyp- tians, from whose tyranny the Israelites had just escaped. Figures of them appeared on the friezes of most of the temples,” and they were regarded as emblems of the Divine Being. Herodotus, speaking of the sanctity in which some animals were held by the Egyptians, says that the people of every family in which a dog died, shaved themselves—their expression of mourning—and he adds, that this was a custom existing in his own time.” ¢

The cause of this attachment to and veneration for the dog is, however, explained in a far more probable and pleasing way than many of the fables of ancient mythology. The prosperity of Lower Egypt, and almost the very subsistence of its inhabitants, depended on the annual overflowing of the Nile ; and they looked for it with the utmost anxiety. Its approach was announced by the appearance of a certain star—Srrivs. As soon as that star was seen above the horizon, they hastened to remove their flocks to the higher ground, and abandoned the lower pastures to the fertilizing influence of the stream. They hailed it as their guard and protector ; and, associating with its apparent watchfulness the well-known fidelity of the dog, they called it the dog-star,” and they worshipped it. It was in far later periods and in other countries that the appearance of the dog-star was regarded as the signal of insufferable heat or preva- lent disease.

One of the Egyptian deities—Anubis—is described as having the form and body of a man, but with a dog’s head. These were types of sagacity and fidelity.

In Ethiopia, not only was great veneration paid to the dog, but the inhabitants used to elect a dog as their king. He was kept in great state, and surrounded by a numerous train of officers and guards. When he fawned upon them, he was supposed to be pleased with their proceedings ; when he growled, he disapproved of the manner in which their govern- ment was conducted. These indications of his will were implicitly obeyed, or rather, perhaps, were translated by his worshippers as their own caprice or interest dictated.

Even a thousand years after this period the dog was highly esteemed in Egypt for its sagacity and other excellent qualities ; for, when Pythagoras, after his return from Egypt, founded a new sect in Greece, and at Croton, in southern Italy, he taught, with the Egyptian philosophers, that, at the death of the body, the soul entered into that of different ani- mals. He used, after the decease of any of his favourite disciples, to cause a dog to be held to the mouth of the dying man, in order to receive his departing spirit; saying, that there was no animal that could perpetuate his virtues better than that quadruped.

It was in order to preserve the Israelites from errors and follies like

a Deut. xxiii. 18. - and broad muzzle, not unlike the old Tal- b In some of Belzoni’s beautiful sketches bot hound.

of the frieze-work of the old Egyptian tem- e Herodotus, lib. ii. c. 66.

ples, the dog appears, with his long ears

EARLY HISTORY OF THE DOG. ð

these, and to prevent the possibility of this species of idolatry being esta- blished, that the dog was. afterwards regarded with utter abhorrence among the Jews. This feeling prevailed during the continuance of the Israelites in Palestine. Even in the New Testament the Apostle warns those to whom he wrote to beware of dogs and evil-workers ;’’ ? and it is said in The Revelations’ that without are dogs and sorcerers,” &c. ° Dogs were, however, employed even by the Jews. Job says, « Now they that are younger than I have me in derision, whose fathers I would have disdained to have set with the dogs of my flock.” Dogs were employed either to guide the sheep or to protect them from wild beasts ; and some prowled about the streets at night, contending with each other for the offal that was thrown away.

To a certain degree this dislike of the dog continues to the present day ; for, with few exceptions, the dog is seldom the chosen companion of the Jew, or even the inmate of his house. Nor was it originally confined to Palestine. Wherever a knowledge of the Jewish religion spread, or any of its traditions were believed, there arose an abhorrence of the dog. The Mohammedans have always regarded him as an unclean animal, that should never be cherished in any human habitation—belonging to no par- ticular owner, but protecting the street® and the district rather than the house of a master.

The Hindoos regard him likewise as unclean, and submit to various purifications if they accidentally come in contact with him, believing that every dog was animated by a wicked and malignant spirit condemned to do penance in that form for crimes committed in a previous state of exist- ence. If by chance a dog passed between a teacher and his pupil during the period of instruction, it was supposed that the best lesson would be

completely poisoned, and it was deemed prudent to suspend the tuition for at least a day and a night. Even in Egypt dogs are now as much avoided as they were venerated. In every Mohammedan and Hindoo country the na scurrilous epithet bestowed on a European or a Christian is—“ a og l 99 f This accounts for the singular fact that in the whole of the Jewish his-

tory there is not a single allusion to hunting with dogs. Mention is made of nets and snares, but the dog seems to .have been never used in the pur- suit of game.

In the early periods of the history of other countries this seems to have been the case even where the dog was esteemed and valued, and had be- come the companion, the friend, and the defender of man and his home. So late as the second century of the Christian æra, the fair hunting of the present day needed the eloquent defence of Arrian, who says that there is as much difference between a fair trial of speed in a good run, and en-

2 No dog was suffered to come within from this faithful animal, the companion

the precincts of the Temple at Jerusalem. Ew kuves was a prevalent expression among the Jews. Bryant’s Mythology, vol. ii. p. 42.

Rob hike iii:

SEREY: XXil 15. jg Job. xxx. 1. See also Isaiah lvi. 10,

e Psalm lix. 6.

f Carpenter’s Scripture Natural His- tory, p. 109. It isa remarkable fact that

of man, and the guardian of his person and property, should originate so many terms of reproach as dog,” cur,” hound,” puppy,” “dog cheap,” “a dog’s trick,” dog sick.” dog weary,” “to lead the life of a dog,” to use like a dog.” All this probably originated in the East, where the dog was held in ab- horrence as the common scavenger of the streets.

6 EARLY HISTORY OF THE DOG.

snaring a poor animal without an effort, as between the secret piratica] assaults of robbers at sea, and the victorious naval engagements of the Athenians at Artemisium and at Salamis.* The first hint of the employ- ment of the dog in the pursuit of other animals is given by Oppian in his Cynegeticus, who attributes it to Pollux, about 200 years after the pro- _mulgation of the Levitical law. | Of the precise species of dog that prevailed or was cultivated in Greece | at this early period little can with certainty be affirmed. One beautiful ` piece of sculpture has been preserved, and is now in the possession of Lord Feversham at Duncombe Hall. It is said to represent the favourite dog of Alcibiades, and to have been the production of Myson, one of the most skilful artists of ancient times. It differs but little from the New- foundland dog of the present day. He is represented as sitting on his haunches, and earnestly looking at his master. Any one would vouch for the sagacity and fidelity of that animal.

The British Museum contains a group of greyhound puppies of more recent date, from the ruins of the villa of Antoninus, near Rome. One

“ae h FS, \ aaa.

is fondling the other, and the attitude of both, and the characteristic puppy-clumsiness of their limbs, which indicate, nevertheless, the beautiful proportions that will soon be developed, are an admirable specimen of ancient art.

The Greeks in the earlier periods of their history depended too much on their nets ; and it was not until later times that they pursued their prey

= Arrian’s Cynegeticus, cap. 26,

EARLY HISTORY OF THE DOG. 7

with dogs, and then not with dogs that ran by sight, or succeeded by their swiftness of foot, but by beagles very little superior to those of modern days. Of the stronger and more ferocious dogs there is, however, occa- sional mention. The bull-dog of modern date does not excel the one (possibly of nearly the same race) that was presented to Alexander the Great, and that boldly seized a ferocious lion, or another that would not quit his hold, although one leg and then another was cut off.

It would be difficult and foreign to the object of this work fully to trace

the early history of the dog. Both in Greece and in Rome he was highly estimated. Alexander built a city in honour of adog; and the Emperor Hadrian decreed the most solemn rites of sepulture to another on account of his sagacity and fidelity. _ The translator of Arrian imagines that the use of the pugnaces (fight- ing) and the sagaces (intelligent)—the more ferocious dogs, and those who artfully circumvented and caught their prey—was known in the earlier periods of Greek and Roman history, but that the celeres, the dogs of speed, the greyhounds of every kind, were peculiar to the British islands, or to the western and northern continents of Europe, the interior and the produce of which were in those days unknown to the Greeks and Romans. By most authors who have inquired into the origin of these varieties of the dog the sagaces have been generally assigned to Greece— the pugnaces to Asia—and the celeres to the Celtic nations.

Of the aboriginal country of the latter there can be little doubt; but the accounts that are given of the English mastiff at the invasion of Britain by the Romans, and the early history of the English hound, which was once peculiar to this country, and at the present day degenerates in every other, © would go far to prove that these breeds also are indigenous to our island.

Oppian thus describes the hunting dog as he finds him in Britain :— There is, besides, an excellent kind of scenting dogs, though small, yet worthy of estimation. They are fed by the fierce nation of painted Bri- tons, who call them agasei. In size they resemble worthless greedy house-dogs that gape under tables. They are crooked, lean, coarse-haired, and heavy-eyed, but armed with powerful claws and deadly teeth. ‘The agaseus is of good nose and most excellent in following scent.” »

Among the savage dogs of ancient times were the Hyrcanian, said, on account of their extreme ferocity, to have been crossed with the tiger,— the Locrian, chiefly employed in hunting the boar,—the Pannonian, used in war as well as in the chace, and by whom the first charge on the enemy was always made,—and the Molossian, of Epirus, likewise trained to war as well as to the honours of the amphitheatre and the dangers of the chace. This last breed had one redeeming quality—an inviolable attachment to their owners. This attachment was reciprocal ; for it is said that the Mo- lossi used to weep over their faithful quadruped companions slain in war.

ZElian relates that one of them, and his owner, so much distinguished themselves at the battle of Marathon, that the effigy of the dog was placed on the same tablet with that of his master.

Soon after Britain was discovered the pugnaces of Epirus were pitted against those of our island, and, according to the testimony of Gratius, completely beaten. A variety of this class, but as large and as ferocious, was employed to guard the sheep and cattle, or to watch at the door of

a New Sporting Magazine, vol. xiv. p. 97. > Oppian’s Cynegeticus, lib. i. v. 468—480.

8 EARLY HISTORY OF THE DOG.

the house, or to follow the owner on any excursion of business or of plea- sure. Gratius says of these dogs, that they have no pretensions to the deceitful commendation of form ; but, at the time of need, when courage is required of them, most excellent mastiffs are not to be preferred to them.

The account of the British pugnaces of former times, and also of the sagaces and celeres, will be best given when treating of their present state and comparative value. In describing the different breeds of dogs, some anecdotes will be related of their sagacity and fidelity ; a few previous remarks, however, may be admissible.

A young man lost his life by falling from one of the precipices of the Helvellyn mountains. Three months afterwards his remains were dis- covered at the bottom of a ravine, and his faithful dog, almost a skeleton, still guarding them. Sir Walter Scott beautifully describes the scene :

Dark-green was the spot, ’mid the brown mountain heather, Where the pilgrim of nature lay stretched in decay ; Like the corps of an outeast, abandoned to weather, ~ ‘Till the mountain winds wasted the tenantless clay ; Nor yet quite deserted, though lonely extended, For, faithful in death, his mute favourite attended, The much-loved remains of her master defended, And chased the hill-fox and the raven away. How long didst thou think that his silence was slumber ? When the wind waved his garments how oft didst thou start ? How many long days and long weeks didst thou number Ere he faded before thee, the friend of thy heart ?

Burchell, in his Travels in Africa, places the connexion between man and the dog, and the good qualities of this animal, in an interesting point of view. A pack of dogs of various descriptions formed a necessary part of his caravan, occasionally to provide him with food, but oftener to defend him from wild beasts or robbers. While almost every other quadruped fears man as his most formidable enemy,” says this interesting traveller, there is one who regards him as his companion, and follows him as his friend. We must not mistake the nature of the case. It is not because we train him to our use, and have made choice of him in preference to other animals, but because this particular species of animal feels a natural desire to be useful to man, and, from spontaneous impulse, attaches him- self to him. Were it not so, we should see in various countries an equal familiarity with other quadrupeds, according to their habits, and the taste or caprices of different nations; but, everywhere, it is the dog only that takes delight in associating with us, and in shafing our abode. It is he who knows us personally, watches over us, and warns us of danger. It is impossible for the naturalist not to feel a conviction that this friendship between creatures so different from each other must be the result of the laws of nature; nor can the humane and feeling mind avoid the belief that kindness to those animals, from which he derives continued and essential assistance, is part of the moral duty of man.

Often in the silence of the night, when all my people have been fast asleep around the fire, have I stood to contemplate these faithful animals watching by their side, and have learned to esteem them for their social inclination towards mankind. When, wandering over pathless deserts, oppressed with vexation and distress at the conduct of my own men, I have turned to these as my only friends, and felt how much inferior to them was man when actuated only by selfish views.”

Of the stanchness and incorruptible fidelity of the dog, and his disre-

T Nea >

EARLY HISTORY OF THE DOG. 9

gard of personal inconvenience and want, when employed in our service, it is impossible to entertain a doubt. We have sometimes thought that the attachment of the dog to its master was increased, or, at least, the exhibition of it, by the penury of the owner. At all events one fact is plain enough, that, while poverty drives away from us many a companion of our happier hours, it was never known to diminish the love of our quadruped friend.

The early history of the dog has been described, and the abomination in which he was held by the Israelites. At no great distance of time, how- ever, we find him, almost in the neighbourhood of Palestine, in one of the islands of the Ionian Sea, the companion and the friend of princes, and deserving their regard. The reader will forgive a somewhat abbreviated account of the last meeting of Ulysses and his dog.

Twenty years had passed since Argus, the favourite dog of Ulysses, had been parted from his master. The monarch at length wended his way homewards, and, disguised as a beggar, for his life would have been sacri- ficed had he been known, stood at the entrance of his palace-door. There he met with an old dependent, who had formerly served him with fidelity and who was yet faithful to his memory; but age and hardship and care, and the disguise which he now wore, had so altered the wanderer that the good Eumæus had not the most distant suspicion with whom he was con- versing ; but—

Near to the gates, conferring as they drew,

Argus the dog his ancient master knew,

And, not unconscious of the voice and tread,

Lifts to the sound his ears, and rears his head.

He knew his Lord, he knew, and: strove to meet ;

In vain he strove to crawl and kiss his feet:

Yet, all he could, his tail, his ears, his eyes

Salute his master, and confess his joys.a

„In Daniel’s Rural Sports, the account of a nobleman and his dog is

given, The nobleman had been absent two years on foreign service. On his return this faithful creature was the first to recognise him, as he came through the court-yard, and he flew to welcome his old master and friend. He sprung upon him ; his agitation and his joy knew not any bounds; and at length, in the fulness of his transport, he fell at his master’s feet and expired.

We will not further pursue this part of our subject at present. We shall have other opportunities of speaking of the disinterested and devoted affection which this noble animal is capable of displaying when he occu- pies his proper situation, and discharges those offices for which nature designed him. It may, however, be added that this power of tracing back the dog to the very earliest periods of history, and the fact that he then seemed to be as sagacious, as faithful, and as valuable as at the present day, strongly favour the opinion that he descended ‘from no inferior and comparatively worthless animal,—that he was not the progeny of the wolf, the jackal, or the fox, but he was originally created, somewhat as we now find him, the associate and the friend of man.

If, within the first thousand years after the Deluge, we observe that divine honours were paid to him, we can scarcely be brought to believe his wolfish genealogy. The most savage animals are capable of affection for those to whom they have been accustomed, and by whom they have been well treated, and therefore we give full credit to several accounts of

-* Popes Odyssey, xvii.

10 EARLY HISTORY OF THE DOG,

this sort related of the wolf, the lion, and even the cat and the reptile: but in no other animal—in no other, even in the genus Canis—do we find the qualities of the domestic dog, or the slightest approach to them. To his master he flies with alacrity,” says the eloquent Buffon, and sub- missively lays at his feet all his courage, strength, and talent. A glance of the eye is sufficient ; for he understands the smallest indications of his will. He has all the ardour of friendship, and fidelity and constancy in his affections, which man can have. Neither interest nor desire of revenge can corrupt him, and he has no fear but that of displeasing. He is all zeal and obedience. He speedily forgets ill-usage, or only recollects it to make returning attachment the stronger. He licks the hand which causes him pain, and subdues his anger by submission. The training of the dog seems to have been the first art invented by man, and the fruit of that art was the conquest and peaceable possession of the earth.” «< Man,” says Burns, “is the God of the dog; he knows no other ; and see how he wor- ships him. . With what reverence he crouches at his feet—with what. reverence he looks up to him—with what delight he fawns upon him, and with what cheerful alacrity he obeys him !”

If any of the lower animals bear about them the impress of the Divine hand, it is found in the dog: many others are plainly and decidedly more or less connected with the welfare of the human being; but this con- nexion and its effects are limited to a few points, or often to one alone. The dog, different, yet the same, in every region, seems to be formed ex- pressly to administer to our comforts and to our pleasure. He displays a versatility, and yet a perfect unity of power and character, which mark him as our destined servant, and, still more, as our companion and friend. Other animals may be brought to a certain degree of familiarity, and may display much affection and gratitude. There was scarcely an animal in the menagerie of the Zoological Society that did not acknowledge the superintendent as his friend; but it was only a casual intercourse, and might be dissolved by a word or look. At the hour of feeding, the brute principle reigned supreme, and the companion of other hours would be sacrificed if he dared to interfere; but the connexion between man and the dog, no lapse of time, no change of circumstances, no infliction of evil can dissolve. We must, therefore, look far beyond the wolf for the prototype of the dog.

Cuvier eloquently states that the dog exhibits the most complete and the most useful conquest that man has made. Each individual is entirely devoted to his master, adopts his manners, distinguishes and defends his property, and remains attached to him even unto death; and all this springing not from mere necessity, or from constraint, but simply from gratitude and true friendship. The swiftness, the strength, and the highly developed power of smelling of the dog, have made him a power- ful ally of man against the other animals ; and, perhaps, these qualities in the dog were necessary to the establishment of society. It is the only animal that has followed the human being all over the earth.

There is occasionally a friendship existing between dogs resembling that which is found in the human being. The author pledges himself as to the accuracy of the following little anecdote. Two dogs, the property of a gentlemen at Shrewsbury, had been companions for many years, until one of them died of old age. The survivor immediately began to manifest an extraordinary degree of restless anxiety, searching for his old associate in all his former haunts, and refusing every kind of food. He gradually

ZOOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION OF THE DOG, 11

wasted away, and, at the expiration of the tenth day, he died, the victim of an attachment that would have done honour to man.

The Dog belongs to the division of animals termed VERTEBRATED (see ‘The Horse,’ 2nd edition, page 106) because it has a cranium or skull, and a spine or range of VERTEBR& proceeding from it. It ranks under the class MamMatta, because it has teats, by which the female suckles her young; the tribe UNGUICULATA, because its extremities are armed with nails; the order DIGITIGRADES, because it walks principally on its toes. The genus Canis has two tubercular teeth behind the large carnivorous tooth in the upper jaw; and the sub-genus familiaris, the Dog, has the pupils of the eye circular, while those of the wolf are oblique, and those of the fox upright and long.

There has been some dispute whether the various species of dogs are of different origin, or sprung from one common source. When we con- sider the change that climate and breeding effect in the same species of dog, and contrast the rough Irish or Highland greyhound with the smoother one of the southern parts of Britain, or the more delicate one of Greece, or the diminutive but beautifully formed one of Italy, or the hairless one of Africa, or Brazil—or the small Blenheim spaniel with the magnificent Newfoundland ; if also we observe many of them varied by accident, and that accidental variety diligently cultivated into a new species, altogether different in form or use, we`shall find no difficulty in believing that they might be derived from one common origin.

One of the most striking proofs of the influence of climate on the form_ and character of this animal, occurs in the bull-dog. When transported to India he becomes, in a few years, greatly altered in form, loses all his former courage and ferocity, and becomes a perfect coward.

It is probable that all dogs sprung from one common source, but climate, food, and cross-breeding caused variations of form, which sug- gested particular uses; and these being either designedly or accidentally perpetuated, the various breeds of dogs thus arose, and they have be- come numerous in proportion to the progress of civilization. Among the ruder, or savage tribes, they possess but one form; but the ingenuity of man has devised many inventions to increase his comforts : he has varied and multiplied the characters and kinds of domestic animals for the same purpose, and hence the various breeds of horses, and cattle, and dogs.

The parent stock it is now impossible to trace ; but the wild dog, where- ever found on the continent of Asia, or Northern Europe, has nearly the same character, and bears no inconsiderable resemblance to the British fox-dog, while many of those from the Southern Ocean. can scarcely be distinguished from the English lurcher. There is, however, no more difficulty in