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SCAPIGEROUS, annual or perennial herbs, rarely aquatic; 1. narrow, base sheathing, venation parallel; infl. a solitary globose or hemispheric head of densely packed, minute, usually white, unisexual fl., terminating a ped. with a tubular basal sheath; heads androgynous, rarely unisexual, involucrate by short scarious or chartaceous bracts; fl. often more or less hoary with short white hairs, densely crowded on a flat, convex, hemispheric or conical, glabrous or villous receptacle, solitary in the axil of a cuneiform bracteole which is as long as or longer than the flower and dorsally hoary at the top; male fl. stipitate, sep. 2-3, free or connate, hyaline, deciduous, rarely 2 or O; corolla stipitate, funnel-shaped, 3-lobed, lobes minute, one sometimes much longer than the others; stam. 6 or fewer, inserted at the base of the corolla, fil. short, often unequal, anth. didymous, 2-celled, usually black, pistillode 0; fem. fl. sessile or stipitate, sep. 3, rarely 2, I, or 0, unequal, usually concave, deciduous; corolla sessile on the calyx or stipitate, pet. 3, unequal, broad or narrow, persistent, with often a black spot on the limb; ov. superior, sessile or stipitate, globose, 3-lobed, 3-celled, cells with 1 pendulous ovule; style rather short, stigmas 3, erect, filiform; fr. a very small, membranous, 3-celled, loculicidal capsule; seeds very minute, oblong or ellipsoid, smooth, striate, or ribbed, endosperm floury, embryo minute.

ERIOCAULON, Z. For characters, see Order.—Sp. about 150; 43 in F/. B. Ind.

Submerged aquatics, with capillary 1. Bracts and bracteoles glabrous . : . I. E. SETACEUM. Bracts and bracteoles pubescent. ; . 2, E. CAPILLUS-NAIADIS. ‘Terrestrial (or E. fuviatile aquatic). _One pet. of male fl. protruded beyond the bracteoles. Bracteoles acute or obtuse. Heads 3-3 in. diam. : : . 3. E. CAULESCENS. Heads 4-4 in. diam. . s é . 4. E. ZEYLANICUM. Bracteoles cuspidate. Cusps of bracteoles long [om Daa Cusps of bracteoles short 6. A


2 Erivcaulonee. [Eriocaulon.

Pet. of male fl. not exceeding the bracteoles. Seeds with (usually papillose) ridges. Pet. of fem. fl. filiform. bearing a pencil of long hairs.

Scapes 6-18 in., heads 7 Bey in. 7. E. SEXANGULARE. Scapes 2-6 in., heads 2 4-{ in. 8. E. THWAITESII. Pet. of fem. fl. flat, ciliate. Recept. villous, with long hairs. Stout, perennial . : : . 9. E. BROWNIANUM. Annual : . Io, E. LUZULAEFOLIUM. Recept. glabrous, or nearly 50. Heads 4-3 in.diam. ., . . 11. E. TRUNCATUM. Heads 34-3 in. diam. . 5 . 12. E, TRIMENI. Seeds not ridged. Recept. villous with long hairs. Male pet. all very small. L. 6-14 in., scapes 6-12 in. . . 13. E. WIGHTIANUM. L. 1-4 in. Scapes 6-8 in. . : : . 14. E. WALKERI. Scapes I-4 in. . 15. E. QUINQUANGULARE.

Male pet. well developed, « one largest 16. E. COLLINUM. Recept. glabrous, or nearly so.

Annual, terrestrial, 1. 1-2 in. . . 17. E. SIEBOLDIANUM.

Perennial, aquatic, |. 8-Ioin. . . 18. E. FLUVIATILE.

1. EB. setaceum, Z. Sp. P/. 87 (1753). PKRenda, 5S.

Herm. Mus. 8. Burm. Thes. tog. Fl. Zeyl. n. 50. Moon, Cat. 9. Thw. Enum. 341. C. P. 791 (in part).

Fl. B. Ind: vi. 572. Rheede, Hort. Mal. xii. t. 68.

A submerged aquatic; stem 2-3 ft., stout or slender, simple or rarely branched, flexuous, densely crinite throughout with capillary flexuous I-veined |. 14-2 in. long, tips of stem or of branches HOB IEING | scapes very many, 13-3 in. long, slender, > -ribbed, sheath ?—1 in., tip truncate, aernioeavncit heads about 4 in. diam., neers black: bracts short, cuneate- obovate, coria- ceous, elabrous: recept. hemispheric, villous: bracteoles cunei- form or cymbiform, acuminate, glabrous; male fl.:—sep. 3, linear-oblong, obtuse, concave, glabrous, cor.-lobes minute, stam. 6; fem. fl. very shortly stipitate, sep. 3, cymbiform, acute, glabrous or nearly so, cor. shortly stipitate, pet. 3, very narrowly spathulate, ciliate towards the tips, with or without a black spot; seeds +5 in. long, oblong, quite smooth, dark brown.

In rather deep water, in the moist low country below tooo ft.; rare. Fl. Dec.-March. Also in Malabar.

2. B. Capillus-naiadis, Hook. f Fil. Brit. Ind. vi. 572 (1893). C. P. 791 (in part).

Habit and foliage of £. se¢acewm ; heads globose, } in. diam.; white, bracts short, cuneate-obovate, thinly coriaceous, pale ;

Evriocautlon.| Ertocaulonce. 3

recept. hemispheric, sparsely hairy, bracteoles cuneiform, tips rounded, cuspidate, dorsally villous with white hairs above the middle, male and fem. fl. shortly stipitate; male sep. 3, obovate- oblong, concave, dorsally villous above the middle with white hairs; fem. sep. cymbiform, cor. with ov. very shortly stipitate, pet. narrowly spathulate, ciliate towards the tip; ov. subsessile; seeds ;'5 in. long, oblong, smooth, dark brown.

Deep water, in the moist low country below 2000 ft.; Pelaiwatte, Hewesse, Pasdun Korale. FI. Dec.—March.

Also in the Concan, Bengal, Burma, and Cochin China.

In the Peradenya Herbarium this occurs mixed with Z. setaceum, of which it was probably considered (possibly correctly) a form, by Thwaites and Trimen. The colour of the heads, due to the copious white hairs of the fl. bracts, distinguishes it at a glance. The receptacle is less hairy than in the Continental specimens, and the seeds are smaller.

3. E. caulescens, Zi. 7. and Th. in Fl. B. Ind. vi. 572 (1893). £. atratum, var. major, Thw. Enum. 341. C. P. 131.

Stem in young plants simple, 3-4 in. long, as thick as the thumb, in old, ofter copiously branched, with branches 6-10 in. long, and leafy throughout, rooting along the elongate base; roots stout, flexuous; |. 2-6 by ?-4 in., narrowed from the base to the obtuse tip, rigidly coriaceous, quite opaque, veins very many, close-set, faint; scape subsolitary from the stem or branches, 6-18 in., stout or slender, sheath I-6 in., tip obtuse or acute, coriaceous or membranous towards the side; heads 4-2 in. diam., bracts sub 3-seriate, coriaceous, oblong, outer obtuse, inner acute, almost black, shining; recept. flat, covered with very long straight hairs, bracteoles oblanceolate, acute, dark, dorsally shortly bearded; sep. and pet. of both sexes villously bearded, male fl. with 1 pet. much exceeding the bracteoles, obovate, villous all over; fem. fl. with 2 sep. concave, I flat, cor. stipitate, pet. very unequal, spots large, stipes of cor. and of ov. villous; seeds not seen.

Upper montane zone, alt. 5000-8000 ft.; very rare. Adam’s Peak, pees Horton Plains, swamp on Pidurutalagala, 8000 ft. (Pearson).

. rev.

Endemic. Our largest and most handsome species, semi-shrubby when old.

4. E. zeylanicum, Korn. in Linnza, xxvii. (1854), 667 (ceylanicum). £. subcaulescens, Hk. f. in Fl. B. Ind. vi. 573 (1893). £. atratum, Thw. Enum. 341 (part). C. P. 61 (part).

Fl. B. Ind. vi. 585 (ceylanicum).

Stem 3-4 in. as thick as the little finger or less, simple, densely leafy; |. 2-3 by 4in., erect, linear, acute or mucronate, thick, opaque, many-veined, sheath slightly woolly at the base within ; scapes 1-3, 6-12 in., slender, strongly 7-ribbed, sheath

4 Eriocaulonee. [Eriocaulon.

I-3 in., tip membranous; heads ee in. diam., depressed- aereceal pale or snow-white; bracts broadly obovate or oblong, scarious, glabrous, at length ‘reflexed, straw-col’d.; receptacle small, hemispheric, densely villous with long pale hairs; bracteoles cuneately oblanceolate, acute, bearded at the tip, membranous; male fl. shortly stipitate, sep. spathulate, 2 concave, I flat, one pet. much the longest, obovate, exceeding the bracteole, villous all over, stam. 6; fem. fl. subsessile, sep. of male, corolla subsessile, pet. narrowly oblanceolate, very unequal, villous, disk with a black spot.; seeds subglobose 2 5 in. diam., papillose.

Upper montane zone; rare. Nuwara Eliya (Gardner); Pidurutalagala

(Thwaites) ; Horton Plains, alt. 7200 ft. (Pearson). Fl. April. Endemic.

5. B. longicuspis, 2k. 7. 2x Fl. B. Ind. vi. 573 (1893). EF. cristatum, var., Thw. Enum. 341. C. P. 789.

Fl. B. Ind. vi. 573. ’. Stem short, as thick as a swan’s quill; 1. 2-24 in., linear- subulate, acuminate, flat, many-veined, opaque, coriaceous Sheath obscurely villous at the base within; scapes I or 2, 18-20 in., very slender, weak, flexuous, tip of sheath mem- branous; heads 4 in. diam., the black cusps of the bracteoles contrasting with the small white fl.; bracts very small, ¢cuneately obovate, scarious, blackish; recept. hemispheric, clothed with long hairs; bracteoles cuneiform, tips rounded, toothed, and with a long black cusp, glabrous or the inner dorsally villous; male and fem. fl. stipitate, male sep. 3, narrow, concave, tips hairy, one lobe of cor. much exceeding the bracteoles, villous, spathulate, stam. 6; fem. sep. 3, linear- oblong, stipitate, pet. narrowly spathulate, ciliate, each with a black spot; seeds not seen.

Lower montane zone; very rare. Ramboda (Gardner). Fl. Jan. Endemic.

6. E. atratum, Korn. in Linnea, xxvii. 610 (1854).

Thw. Enum. 241. C. P. 61 (part).

Fl. B. Ind. vi. 574.

Stem 1-4 in. densely tufted, erect or decumbent, and sometimes branched, as thick as a swan’s quill at the base or more slender; 1. 4-6 by 74-75 in., narrowly linear, obtuse or acute, erect or spreading from an erect base, thick in texture, veins very many and close-set, sheath more or less woolly at the base within; scape solitary, 6-12 in., tip of sheath mem- branous; head 4-} in. diam., hemispheric; bracts cuneately obovate, incurved, rigid, convex, black, grey, or yellowish, shining, glabrous, inner acute; recept. hemispheric, densely

Eviocaulou.| Eriocaulonee. 5

villous with long hairs; bracteoles orbicular-ovate, black, dorsally shortly bearded above the middle, outer very shortly cuspidate, inner acute, male fl. stipitate, sep. 3, obovate, dorsally densely villous, one lobe of corolla much the longest, much exceeding the bracteoles, obovate, villous all over, stam. 6; fem. fl. subsessile, 2 sep. concave, I narrower, flat, cor. sessile or stipitate, pet. 3, oblanceolate, villous, 2 or all with a black spot; seeds not seen.

- Montane zone; rather common. Galagama (Gardner); Maskeliya: Moist places in Central Province, alt. 6000-8000 ft. (Pearson). FI, Feb., March.


Gardner’s number for this was 932, not 972 as in Herb. Kew. Mr. Pearson has collected specimens with the invol. bracts varying as described above.

7. &. sexangulare, /. SA. P/. 87 (1753). Mokmota, S.

EteGnam Vitisn 7 ae burm hes: 1 1Os.0. Hb leZevle mea.) 22, Wal- dichianum, Mart.; Thw. Enum. 341; Trim. Syst. Cat. Ceyl. 99. C. P. 220. Sul estnd svi. "580, “Wall. Pl. As. Rar. t. 249.

Stem as thick as the little finger or less, short, rarely elongate; |. 4-12 by 4~-# in. broad at the base, narrowed from the base to the subacute or acuminate tip, thin, many-veined, opaque, striate, drying brown; scapes many, tall, up to 18 in. high, slender, stiff, stoutly 5-ribbed, sheath Se —6in., herbaceous, tip ending in a long g green point; heads 1 a3 in. diam. 4 slobose, hemispheric or conical, sometimes viviparous, hard, hoary, base truncate, at length intruded; bracts short, subquadrate or orbicular, spreading, rigidly coriaceous, closely appressed to the fi, elabrous, yellow, shining; recept. globose, hemi- spheric or columnar, sparsely hairy; bracteoles densely im- bricate, broadly cuneate-spathulate, cuspidate, rigid, tip dark, hoary with snow- -white powdery pubescence ; male fl. quite flat, sep. free or connate, flabelliform, crenate - toothed, glabrous, cor.-lobes minute, triangular, Sliakee. Stam. O5 fem,, fi. strongly compressed, subsessile, sep. 3, 2 very large, dolabri- form. and cymbiform, acute, incurved, dorsally broadly winged, third small, linear, flat, pet. filiform, terminated by a pencil of long hairs; seeds oblong or subglobose, 7g in. diam., red- brown, ribbed, ribs papillose. is

Wet places in moist low country; very common. Abundant in oe cinnamon gardens, Colombo. Fl. Dec., March, July.) - | 79 -. In Tropical Asia generally ; Madagascar.

- According to Continental Indian specimens the anil fl. vary ry greatly, sometimes approaching the fem. in the form of the sepals, or are, with them, very much reduced.

6 Evriocaulonee. [Erzocaulon.

8. E. Thwaitesii, Kirn. ix Linnea, xxvii. 627 (1854). L£. Neesz- anum, Korn. |. c. 628.

E. truncatum, Thw. Enum. 341 (part). C. P. 790 (part).

Fl. B. Ind. vi. 583.

Stem very short, stout, sometimes as thick as the little finger; |. 2-10 by 33 in. broad in the middle, subulate, linear, or ensiform, acute or acuminate, opaque, 3—5-veined; scapes many, 2-6 in., slender, flexuous, 5-ribbed, tip of sheath acuminate, herbaceous; heads 4} in. diam., hemispheric or obconic, hoary, base at length intruded; bracts obovate-oblong or nearly orbicular, spreading and incurved, glabrous, coria- ceous, shining, pale straw-col’d.; recept. convex, densely villous with long hairs; bracteoles cuneately oblanceolate or spathulate, acute or obtuse, greyish, scarious, dorsally hoary above the middle; male fl. stipitate, stipes crinite with long hairs; male sep. 2, obovate-oblong, concave, dorsally rounded or almost keeled, glabrous or nearly so, cor.-lobes very minute, disk with black spots, stam. 3-6; fem. fl. sessile or stipitate, sep. 2, cymbiform, acute, dorsally rounded, sometimes with a thickened keel, cor. sessile or stipitate, pet. filiform, very short, terminated by a pencil of long hairs; seeds about #5 in. long, oblong, with papillose ridges, dark red-brown.

Moist region, up to about 4ooo ft.; rather rare. Ramboda (Gardner) ;

Ambagamuwa (Thwaites); Kitulgala. Fl. Jan—March. Also in Nilgiri Mountains.

9. &. Brownianum, J7art. zn Wall. Pl. As. Rar. ii. 25 (1832).

Thw. Enum. 341. C. P. 377 and 378 (part).

Fl. B. Ind. vi. 576. Wall. Pl. As. Rar. t. 248.

Stem I-3 in., from a stout copiously rooting rootstock up to 1 in. diam.; 1. 6-18 by ~4-1 in. broad, narrowly linear to ensiform, acuminate, glabrous or sparsely hairy; scape solitary, 1-2 ft., stout or slender, 7-ribbed and deeply grooved, glabrous or sparsely hairy, and sheaths up to 4 in. long, tip acuminate, green; head 4-4 in. diam., globose or hemispheric, snow-white, bracts }-} in., as long as the fl, obovate-oblong or cuneiform, spreading, at length reflexed, glabrous, pubescent or villous, pale or dark grey; recept. flat or convex, covered with long straight hairs; outer bracteoles broadly cuneiform, inner spathulate, obtuse, all densely villous above the middle with white hairs; male fl. long-stipitate, stipes hairy, sep. broadly spathulate, free or connate, tips dorsally bearded, cor.-lobes subequal, minute, fimbriate, stam. 6; fem. fl. very shortly stipitate, sep. cymbi- form, acute or cuspidate, dorsally hirsute, cor. with ov. shortly stipitate; pet. linear or narrowly oblong, villous with long

Eriocaulon.] Erwocaulonee. U]

straight hairs and with a black spot on the disk; seeds #5 in. diam., oblong or subglobose, ribbed, ribs papillose.

Montane zone, chiefly in higher region; rather common. Adam’s Peak (Gardner); Ambagamuwa; N. Eliya; Rangala; Knuckles Moun- tain; &c. Swampy places in the Central Province, alt. 5500-7200 ft. (Pearson). Fl. March, Sept., Oct.

Also in Khasia and the Nilgiri Mountains.

Very variable, the leaves often much broader than in Wallich’s figure.

Io. EB. luzulaefolium, J7art. in Wall. Pi. As. Rar. iii. 28 (1832).

Fl. Brit. Ind. vi. 582. Schniz!. Icon. t. 46, f. 2, 5.

Perennial (?); stem stout or slender, sometimes as thick as a swan’s quill, densely fibrous; |. 1-3 in., broadly subulate, narrowed from the base to the acuminate tip, many-veined, Opaque or translucent; scapes many, 3-12 in., slender, 5-7-ribbed, flexuous, sheath obtuse; heads small, hemi- spheric, 4 in. diam., pale greyish, pubescent, base truncate, intruded; bracts erect or spreading, outer broadly cuneiform, subcoriaceous, shining, glabrous; recept. conical or columnar, villous with long hairs; bracteoles cuneately oblanceolate, obtuse or subacute, dorsally shortly hairy; male fl. stipitate, sep. 3, free or 2-connate, tips ciliate, cor.-lobes minute, obtuse, stam. 6; fem. fl. stipes slender, sep. 3, narrow, concave, dorsally tipped with bristles, cor. with ov. stipitate or sub- sessile, linear-lanceoldte, ciliate; seeds oblong, yellow, faintly ribbed, and most closely transversely ridged, appearing echinulate.

Ceylon (Gardner).

Throughout Continental India. Closely resembles forms of &. quinguangulare, from which the seeds distinguish it.

se &. truncatum, Ham. ex Mart. in Wall. Pl. As. Rar. iii. 29 1632). . ae Enum. 341 (part). C. P. 793.

FI. B. Ind. vi. 578.

A tufted annual; |. 1-2} by }$-+ in., linear or subulate, acuminate, few or many-veined ; scapes many, I-—5 in., rather stout, 5-ribbed, sheath coriaceous, tip green or narrowly mem- branous ; heads 4-3 in. diam., globose or hemispheric, base truncate, at length intruded ; bracts spreading, oblong-cunei- form, shining, glabrous, membranous, pale grey; recept. conical, nearly glabrous ; bracteoles incurved, obovoid-spathu- late, membranous, glabrous, tip truncately rounded with event margins; male fl stipitate, sep. 3, all free, or 2-connat: cuneately oblong, glabrous; cor.-lobes minute, ciliate, stam. 6 or fewer; fem. “f. long-stipitate, sep. 2-3, narrowly linear,

8 Evriocaulonee. [Eriocaulon.

concave or I broader, flat, pet. 3, filiform or narrowly oblan-

ceolate, glabrous or sparsely ciliate, ov. stipitate; seeds

oblong, zz in. long, yellow, strongly ribbed, ribs papillose. Low country; very common. Swampy places in the Central Pro-

vince, all 4000-5500 ft. (Pearson). Thwaites sunk his number 793 under 790.

12. B. Trimeni, Hook, f x. sp.

A small, slender annual; 1. $-1 in, narrowly linear or subulate, acuminate, I-veined above the middle, scapes 1 or few, 14-2 in. long, slender, sheath inflated, acuminate; heads qo-¢ in. diam.; bracts erect, obovate-oblong, hyaline, glisten- ing, tips rounded, quite glabrous; recepts. very small, glabrous; bracteoles cuneately oblong or obovate, obtuse, concave, hyaline; fl. all perfectly glabrous, male stipitate, sep. 3, linear- oblong, obtuse, concave, 2 connate; cor.-lobes minute, obtuse, stam. 1; fem. fl. sessile or shortly stipitate, sep. 3, linear, obtuse, concave, cor. and ov. shortly stipitate, pet. narrowly oblanceolate; seeds ¢5 in. long, oblong - ovoid, acutely 8—10-ribbed, yellow, shining.

Montane zone. Dambulla Rock (7yviémen). FI. Dec.

Referred by Dr. Trimen to &. ¢rumcatum, but a much smaller plant, with perfectly glabrous heads, bracts, bracteoles, and flowers, and shining yellow seeds that are not papillose. It most nearly resembles £.

Szeboldianum, which differs in the columnar receptacle, form of the bracteoles, absence of pet. in the fem. fl., and smooth seeds.

13. BE. Wightianum, Jar?. in Wall. Pl. As. Rai iii. 28 (1832).

Thw. Enum. 341. C. P. 3382, 378 (part).

Fl. B. Ind. vi. 576.

Stem short or elongate, often as thick as the thumb; l. 6-14 by }-#1n., broadly linear or ensiform, obtuse, thin, glabrous or sparsely hairy, many-veined; scapes many, 6-12 in., stout, many-ribbed, and deeply grooved, glabrous or sparsely hairy, sheath with a long green tip; heads }—; in. diam., pale grey and hoary or snow-white from the tip of the fem. pet. projecting beyond the bracteoles; bracts short, broadly obovate-oblong or cuneiform, pale yellowish, pubes- cent or woolly, coriaceous, tips rounded or truncate; recept. convex, villous with long straight hairs; bracteoles cuneately spathulate, tips cuspidate, scarious, densely hoary or shortly pubescent above and densely villous with long hairs below; male fl. stipitate, stipes hairy at the base, sep. 3, cuneately obovate, 2 often connate, tips pubescent, pet. minute, sub- equal, stam. 6; fem. fl. sessile or shortly stipitate, sep. 3, linear, concave, all bearded towards the tip, or 1 naked, cor.

Eriocaulon.| Firiocaulonze. 9

shortly stipitate, pet. spathulate or oblanceolate, dorsally villous with very long hairs, disk with a black spot, ov. sessile; seeds globosely oblong or ellipsoid, 45-5 in. long, dark red- brown, smooth, very minutely papillose.

Montane zone; rather common. Ambagamuwa; Ramboda; N. Eliya;

Wattakelle. Fl. Feb. ' Also in Burma and S. India.

14. B. Walkeri, 2. f. zx Fl. B. Ind. vi. 583 (1893).

E. gquinguangulare, var. argenteum, Thw. Enum. 341. C. P. 3562.

Fl. B. Ind. vi. 533.

Annual, densely tufted; |. much shorter than the scapes, narrowly subulate, obtuse, few-veined, opaque, glistening ; scapes many, 6-8 in., very slender, 7-ribbed, tip of sheath broadly membranous; head globose, or very shortly oblong, --i in. diam., snow-white, base at length intruded; bracts much shorter than the head, spreading, scarious, pale, outer obovate-oblong or cuneiform, glabrous, inner oblong, tips bearded; recept. hemispheric to columnar, densely clothed with long white hairs, bracteoles oblanceolate, acute or cuspi- dately acuminate, membranous, dorsally bearded above the middle or lower with snow-white hairs; male fl. with a short crinite stipes, sep. 3, broadly spathulate, dorsally long bearded, 2 connate, cor.-lobes ovate, subequal, or one longer, all bearded, and with a black gland on the disk, stam. 6; fem. fl. on a short crinite stipes, sep. narrowly obovate or oblong, obtuse, dorsally bearded, cor. sessile or shortly stipitate, pet. oblanceolate, dorsally bearded with long jointed hairs, and tipped with short obtuse white ones, disk of each with a black gland; seeds ;5 in. long, oblong or ellipsoid, orange-yellow, smooth, shining, chalaza very large.

_ Low country; apparently very rare. CKalutara; Batticaloa. Fl.

March. Endemic.

15. &. quinquangulare, Z. S/. P/. 87 (1753). Hin-kokmota, S.

Herm. Mus. 20. Burm. Thes. 109. FI. Zeyl. n. 48. Moon, Cat. 9. Thw. Enum. 341. C. P. 792. : Beruiob. Ind vi soz. Pluk: Phytcer. taz21, f 7-

Stems very short, tufted on a short rootstock; |. 1-4 by 4-14 in. subulate, linear, or ensiform, acuminate, usually narrowed uniformly from base to tip, often bright red-brown when dry; scapes many, 1-4 in., rather stout, flexuous, sheath short, tip membranous, obtuse, or rounded; heads globose, 4_1 in. diam., grey to snow-white, bracts very short, linear- oblong to broadly oblong or cuneate, scarious, glistening, at length reflexed and concealed under the head; recept.

10 Erwocaulonec. [Eriocaulon.

globose or columnar, sparsely villous, bracteoles oblanceolate or spathulate, acuminate or cuspidate, hyaline, dorsally villous with flexuous hairs; male fl.:—sep. 3, 2 ovate, connate, tips villously penicillate, cor.-lobes minute, stam. 6; fem. ff. stipitate, sep. 3, narrow, 2 concave, dorsally villous, one flat; cor. sessile or stipitate, pet. 3, very unequal, oblanceolate, one much the longest, villous all over, two shorter and much narrower, all usually with a black spot on the disk; seeds very minute, oblong or subglobose, pale yellow, quite smooth, shining.

Low country, in damp places, in both regions, and up to 4ooo0 ft.; very common. Fl. Oct., Feb., July.

Throughout India.

A very pretty little species, with very white heads. Often so abundant as to make the ground look as if covered with snow. The leaves usually pink in colour when dry.

16. E. collinum, /72. 7. 7x F/. B. Ind. vi. 584 (1893).

E. luzulefolium, Thw. Enum. 341 (non Mart.). C. P. 796 (1000).

Fl. B. Ind. vi. 584.

Annual (?); stems densely tufted; 1. 1-3} in. by 74-4 in, narrowly linear or subulate, obtuse, I1-9-veined, opaque or translucent; scapes many, 3-12 in., slender, rigid, flexuous, 7-ribbed, sheath stout, sometimes as long as the 1., tip obtuse, broadly membranous; heads globose, } in. diam., dark grey, base at length intruded; bracts small, outer very short, orbicular or cuneate-obovate, scarious, pale, dorsally hoary, or the outer glabrous, at length reflexed; recept. hemispheric or columnar, densely villous with long hairs; bracteoles cuneately spathulate or obovate, cuspidately acuminate, membranous, dorsally hoary with short white hairs; male fl. stipitate, sep. 3, linear-oblong, concave, cor.-lobes 3, one much the longest, exserted beyond the sep. but not beyond the bracteoles, stam. 6; fem. fl. stipitate, sep. 3, two cymbi- form, one flat, cor. sessile or shortly stipitate, pet. narrowly oblanceolate, ciliate, ov. sessile; seeds 5 in. long, oblong, smooth, pale yellow-brown, closely minutely papillose.

Montane zone; rare. Ramboda; Ambagamuwa; Horton Plains. FI. Dec.—March.

Also in the Nilgiri Mountains.

eon Sieboldianum, Seb. and Zucc. ex Stend. Syn. Pl. Cyp. 272 (1855). k EB ee ees Burm. FI. Zeyl. 31; Moon, Cat. 9; Thw. Enum. 341; Trim. Syst. Cat. 99 (non L.). C. P. 795.

Fl. B. Ind. vi. 577. Burm. Fl. Ind. t. 9, f. 4.

Annual, tufted, stemless; |. 1-2 in., subulate or setaceous, 3-5-veined, glabrous, opaque or translucent, sheath very short,

Eriocaulon.] Eriocaulonee. II

scapes many, 3-4 in., slender, 5-ribbed, sheath 3 in., obtuse, broadly membranous; heads small, ¢ in. diam., globose or -ovoid, white or purplish; bracts much shorter than the head, ~outer broadly oblong, obtuse, tip rounded, inner narrower, all scarious, spreading or ascending, glabrous, pale; recept. small, columnar, glabrous, or sparsely hairy; bracteoles linear- oblong or oblong-lanceolate, obtuse or subacute, closely im- ‘bricating, hyaline, glabrous, shining, with usually a_ broad, often purplish, central band of colour; fl. all glabrous, male and fem. stipitate, male sep. 3, free or connate, obovate- oblong, cor.-lobes minute, stam. 1-6; fem. sep. I or 2, filiform -or O, pet. 0, stipes of ov. with a node at the position of the pet.; seeds very minute, about 100 in. long, oblong, quite smooth, pale red- or yellow-brown, shining.

Moist region up to 3000 ft.; common. FI. Oct., Feb.

Throughout India and in China, Philippines and Japan.

Burman seems to have been the first to refer &. sexangulare, L., to -this, and so misled subsequent writers.

18. E. fluviatile, 772m. 7m Journ. Bot. xxiii. 270 (1885). C. P. 057: ; on B. Ind. vi. 585. :

A perennial, submerged aquatic, with emersed heads; stems 2-3 in., very slender, interlaced, flexuous, copiously rooting; 1. 8-10 in, about =; in. broad, almost filiform, -concave above, dorsally convex, flaccid, sheath dilated, membranous, 7-veined, base cottony within; scape solitary, rather shorter than the 1|., slender, 7-ribbed, sheath cylindric, tip with a long green point; head floating, depressed-globose, din. diam.; bracts dark, glabrous, outer orbicular, inner ‘broadly oval or oblong, subscariously coriaceous; recept. hemispheric, glabrous; bracteoles obovate or cuneately oblong, membranous, tips rounded, villous; male fl.:—sep. 3, spathu- late, dorsally villous beyond the middle, cor.-lobes rather large, villous, disk with a black spot; fem. fl. subsessile, sep. and subsessile pet. narrow, spathulate, ciliate, the pet. -with a black spot; seeds about 5 in., oblong, sinooth, pale ‘brown.

In deep running water, in moist low country; very rare. Streams now - supplying the great reservoir at Labugama, first noticed by Ferguson in 1882; near Hewesse, Pasdun Korale. Fl. Jan., Feb. Endemic. The habit is that of Z. Dadze/iz, but the flowers are very different.

12 Cyperacec.


PERENNIAL, rarely annual herbs, with the habit of grasses; roots fibrous; stem terete or 3-angled, rarely branched; 1.

grass-like (rarely 0), 3-ranked, mostly crowded at the base of. the stem, upper fewer, with tubular sheaths, which are more or less closed, or the lower split to the base, ligule 0, or a short prolongation of the mouth of the sheath opposite the blade; infl. of solitary, fascicled, panicled, or spicate spikelets,

composed of small imbricating distichous, or spirally imbri- cating scales (glumes); fl. minute, uni- or bisexual, in the axils of the glumes; perianth o, or of 6 or more hypog ynous bristles or scales (ovary enclosed in a utricle in Carex) ; stam.

1-3, fil. flattened, anth. basifixed, linear; ov. i-celled, style short or long, stigmas 2-3, ovule 1, basal, erect, anatropous; fr. a compressed or trigonous nut; seed erect, free, embryo minute, within the base of the floury endosperm.

In using the following key and the generic characters given of the Ceylon Cyferacee, it is absolutely necessary, for their proper understand- ing, to bear in mind that the so-called spikelets of the tribe Cyfeve@ are not homologous with those of the other tribes. In the Cyperee@, each flowering glume of the spikelet bears one bisexual fl., and any scales or bristles placed around or below the stamens are considered to be organs of that fl. (disk or perianth). In the other tribes, what appear to be the glumes of a spikelet are considered to be bracts of a spike, each of which bracts bears in its axil a spikelet (homologous with that of Cyferee), reduced to a sessile ovary, accompanied or surrounded with scale-like glumes, which are not arranged upon a rhachilla, but are arranged around the ovary in a certain order, which can only be ascertained by very care- fulexamination. In Ayfolytree, two of the scales are always external to the others, placed right and left of the ov., are monandrous, concave, ‘strongly laterally compressed and keeled, the keel ciliate, the other scales, one or more of which are monandrous, are flat and variously placed. In Sclertee, where also what appear to be the glumes of a spikelet are considered to be the bracts of a spike, the true spikelet also consisting of scales, like glumes, and the male glumes are‘usually on a separate spike. There is no trace in Sclerze@ of the two right and left glumes of //yfolytree. Lastly, in Caricee the true spikelet is represented in the male spike by stamens only, and in the fem. by an ov. enclosed in a utricle, which latter i is the homologue of the two right and left scales of | Hy polytree.

From the above it may be concluded that it is very difficult to apply to the infl. of Cy~eracee a nomenciature at once scientific, practical, and _ intelligible to the student without much circumlocution; I have there- fore followed the simplest course of using, throughout the Order, the term spikelet for both spikes and spikelets, and of scales for the glumes- of the true spikelets of Hypolytree and Scleriee.—J. D. H


Nut not enclosed in a utricle (see Lifocarpiha). _ FI. bisexual, solitary in the glumes of a simple spikelet (Cyperee). Glumes all distichous (see also Actinoschenus and some sp. of Fzméristylis. Rhachilla of spikelet persistent . ; Rhachilla of spikelet disarticulating above the second glume. Spikelets many-fid . Spikelets few-fid. Glumes all spirally imbricated, or the lower only distichous. Spikelets many-fld. (except Wedsteria). Hypogynous scales or bristles 0 (see also sp. of Sczrfus and Eleocharis). Style- base swollen, disarticulating from the nut. Glumes separable from the rhachilla Glumes persistent on the rhachilla . Style-base persistent on the nut . Hypogynous scales or bristles present. Nut with hypogynous bristles (o in some sp. of Scirpus and LE/eo- charts). Spikelets many-fid. Style-base swollen Style-base not swollen . Spikelets 1-fld. 3 : Nut with hypogynous scales. Scales 3, stipitate, flat. Scales 2, hyaline, wrapped round the MUETS Spikelets few-fld. (see also Websteria) (Rhynchosporee). Spikelets compressed, capitate Spikelets not compressed. Stigmas 2 Stigmas 3 Spikelets panicled Spikelets fastigiate in an ovoid head F]. unisexual; glumes containing many slender scales, some with a single stamen, others empty, and one central naked pistil. Spikelets uniform (HyZolytree). Spikelet solitary, unilateral . Spikelets many. Spikelets in terminal panicles . Spikelets capitate on axillary scapes. Nut globose, smooth : Nut deeply 6-10 grooved Spikelets dimorphic, male narrow, fem. broader (Sclertee). Glumes entire, with one median vein . Glumes trifid, with 5-7 strong veins . Nut enclosed in a compressed utricle



\O cont












14 Cyperacee. [ Cyperus.


Perennial, rarely annual, glabrous herbs, with a creeping rootstock or oO; |. all towards the base of the stem, with some- times a few cauline, in a few sp. reduced to sheaths; infl. of solitary or umbelled heads or spikes of spikelets; invol. bracts one or more, foliaceous, with bracteoles under the secondary divisions of the infl.; spikelets linear or oblong, rhachilla persistent, not disarticulating towards the base, with some- times membranous wings (the persistent bases of the glumes) ; glumes distichous, 2 lowest empty, the succeeding bisexual, all nearly equal, deciduous in ascending order, uppermost 1-3, empty or sterile; hypogynous scales or bristles 0; stam. 3, rarely I or 2, anth. linear or oblong; ov. compressed, style long, short, or 0, stigma 2 or 3, long or short; nut trigonous, triquetrous, or plano-convex.—Sp. about 350; 80 in /V. B. Ind.

A satisfactory classification of the species of CyZerus in linear sequence is, Owing to their cross affinities, and their variability in habit and in the development of the infl., perhaps unattainable. For this work (in which dichotomy is the rule adopted by Dr. Trimen for the construction of the keys), I have chosen for the principal subclivisions of the genus characters which, though in great measure artificial, will, I think, be serviceable to the student in his endeavour to identify the Ceylon species. This I have followed with an account of the arrangement adopted by Mr. Clarke in the Flora of British India, which is partly natural and partly artificial ;—wholly artificial in retaining /wacel/us as a genus, and natural in adopting Pycreus. With regard to the latter genus, though not adopted by Dr. Trimen in the list of Cyperacee, which he drew up for description in this work, it is well distinguished from Cyfervus by the laterally com- pressed nut, and is, as Mr. Clarke informs me, only distinguishable from Kyllinga by habit and the inarticulate rhachilla of the spikelets. For valuable observations on the inflorescence, &c., of Cyferacez, see that author’s Pre.idential Address to the Linnean Society, published in the Proceedings” of that body for 1895-6, p. 22.—J. H. D.

Style long, filiform, stigmas 2-3, minute . » (1. Gy CEPHALORES: Style very short or 0, stigmas 3, short . font, (Cy ERD: Style long, stigmas 2-3, long. Stigmas 2-3, nut dorsally compressed (see also 39, C. alopecuroides) . : . 3. C. PYGMAUS. Stigmas 2, nut laterally compressed. Spikelets all or most in a solitary terminal head; annuals. Rhachilla not winged.

Spikelets loosely capitate . 4. C. STRAMINEUS. Spikelets compactly capitate 5. C. PUMILUS. Rhachilla winged . 3 6. C. HYALINUS (Vahl).

Spikelets umbelled. Style as long as the nut. Nut broadly obovoid A : . 7. C. SANGUINOLENTUS, Nut narrow, truncate. : é . 8. C. POLYSTACHYUS. Style shorter than the nut.

Cyperus. Cyperacee.

Nut obcordate Nut broadly obovoid . Stigmas 3. Spikelets all or most in a single terminal head. Rhachilla winged . Rhachilla not, or hardly, winged. Stem tall Stem short. Perennial, heads large . Annual, heads small Spikelets in umbelled heads or spikes. Spikelets in globose compact heads, or digitately or stellately clustered on the rays of a simple or compound umbel. (See also 31 compressus.) Nut long-beaked, margins corky Nut not, or minutely, beaked, margins not corky. Spikelets in globose compact heads Spikelets digitately or stellately clustered. Annual, glumes with long re- curved cusps. Nut narrowly oblong, Hee late . Nut obovoid, smooth Perennial, except C. flavidus. L. ¢ in. ‘broad, or less. Glumes orbicular. Spikelets 4-3 in. long Spikelets Bib in. long Glumes oblong . ¥-3 in. broad : Spikelets spicate, spikes terminating the rays or raylets of a usually com- pound umbel. Spikelets usually long, and loosely

spicate. Bracts o, or very short; I. 0, or short. Nut oblong, half as long as the glume . Nut elliptic, not ‘half. as long as the glume

Bracts leafy, one or more very ‘long. Nut narrow, half as long as the glume, or more. L. 1-2, oro L. many.

Spikes and spikelets suberect \ Spikes and spikelets Sree, ing Nut broad, half as long as the

glume, or shorter.

o ils - 12.

Hues a ae

» TiS


23) 5 onl

5 ls, 26. 5 2s



















16 Cyperacee. [Crperus..

Rhachis of spikes hispidulous 28. C. PILOSUS. Rhachis of spikes glabrous. Glumes with a green cusp. Spikelets #5 in. broad =. 29, C. EXALTATUS. Spikelets 4-4 in. broad. Spikelets turgid . . 30. C. TUBEROSUS. Spikelets compressed . 31. C. COMPRESSUS. Glumes without a greencusp. Stem tall, triquetrous.

Tip of glumes rounded 32. C. PROCERUS. Tip of glumes acute or subacute : - 33- G. ZOLLINGERL Stem trigonous. Annual P : . 34. C. ROTUNDUS. Perennial . C. STOLONIFERUS.

Spikelets very short, densely crowded in cylindric spikes. Styles 3. Spikes and spikelets spreading.

Spikes 1-13 in., red-brown . 36. C. DIGITATUS. Spikes $-1I in., green. . 37. C. ELEUSINOIDES. Spikes and spikelets suberect . 38. C. PLATYPHYLLUS. Styles 2. ; ; : : . 39. C. ALOPECUROIDES.

The following is the arrangement followed by Clarke in FI. B. Ind., with the numbers in brackets as they are arranged in this work :—

Gen. Pycreus. Nut laterally compressed, stigmas 2. 1, stramineus (Cyp. 4); 2, sanguinolentus (Cyp. 7); 3, nitens (5. C. pumilus); 4, pumilus (6. C. hyalinus) ; 5, capillaris (10. C. globosus) ; 6, polystachyus (Cyp. 8); 7, puncticulatus (Cyp. 9).

Gen. Juncellus. Nut plano-convex, dorsally compressed, stigmas 2. 1, alopecuroides (Cyp. 39); 2, pygmzeus (Cyp. 3).

Gen. Cyperus. Nut trigonous or triquetrous, rarely dorsally com- pressed, stigmas 3, rarely 2. -

Subgen. I. Anosporum. Style entire, or with 3 minute stigmas. 1. C. Cephalotes (1).

Subgen. II. Pycnostachys. Style compressed, stigmas capillary.

Sect. 1. /Vatantes. 2 C. platystylis (15).

Sect. 2. Amuadiles. Slender annuals, spikelets small, glumes mucronate; 3 castaneus (17); 4, cuspidatus (18).

Sect. 3. Difformes. Small, or middle-sized, annuals or biennials, rootstock o, or creeping in C. Hasfan, |. and bracts moderately long, narrow, weak; infl. umbellate, rarely capitate; spikelets small, numerous; glumes scarcely cuspidate; 5, difformis (16) ; 6, pulcherrimus (21); 7, Haspan (19); 8, flavidus (20).

Sect. 4. Conglomeratz. Rootstock woody, creeping, root-fibres thick, often woolly; infl. umbelled or of one head; 9, arenarius (13); 10, conglomeratus (12); 11, pachyrhizus (12: conglome- ratus #).

Sect. 5. Dzffusz. Tall, or middle-sized perennials, 1. green, somewhat broad, often 3-veined; umbels compound, generally decompound; 12, diffusus (22); 13, pubisquama (12 diffusus 6B pubisquama).

Subgen, III. Choristachys. Infl. umbellate, spikes often more or


Cyperus.| Cyperacee. 17

less corymbed, spikelets sometimes very shortly spicate, stigmas


A. Rhachilla of spikelets not much winged; I. and bracts long. Sect. 1. Compressz. Annuals or biennials; 14, compressus

(31); I5, aristatus (14); 16, Iria (2).

Sect. 2. Rootstock becoming woody, stolons frequent (large or middle-sized) ; 17, distans (26); 18, nutans (27); 19, eleu- sinoides (37); 20, pilosus (28); 21, procerus (32).

B. Rhachilla of spikelets usually conspicuously winged.

Sect. 3. &zlbosz. Stolons slender, soon disappearing, termi- nating in tunicated bulbils ; 22, bulbosus (11).

Sect. 4. Srevtfoliatz. Tall; stolons long, hardening into creeping rootstocks; 1. short, rarely half the length of stem; glumes approximate, closely imbricate; 23, articulatus (23); 24, corymbosus (24).

Sect. 5. Swbimbricatiz. Tall; rootstock very short, woody, stolons o ; glumes scarcely imbricating in frt. ; 25, C. tegetum, (25 C. dehiscens) ; 26, Zollingeri (32).

Sect. 6. Aotundi. Tall or medium plants, stoloniferous or rootstock woody; I. and bracts long ; rhachilla of spikelets

- winged; glumes closely imbricated ; 27, C. rotundus (34) ; 28, C. stoloniferus (35) ; 29, C. tuberosus (30).

Sect. 7. xaltatz. Tall, stolons 0; 1. and bracts long ; umbel large, compound, spikes and spikelets many, rhachilla con- spicuously winged; anth. apiculate, sometimes crested; style and stigmas small; nut small, ashy black; 30, C. exaltatus (29); 31, C. digitatus (36); 32, C. platyphyllus (38).

1. ©. Cephalotes, Vah/, Enum. 11. 311 (1806). C. Hookerianus, Thw. Enum. 342. C. P. 3221. Fl. B. Ind. vi. 597. Rheede, Hort. Mal. xii. t. 53.

An annual (?) marsh herb, with slender stolons; stem rather stiff, 6-10 in., trigonous; |. longer or shorter than the stem, narrowly linear, acuminate, striate, erect, } in. broad, rather coriaceous, I-veined; head globose, $ in. diam., of many small sessile spikelets; bracts 3-4, leaf-like, striate, widely spreading, base a little dilated; spikelets ovate, 4-4 by ¢ in., flat, 20-30-fld., rhachilla stout, not winged; glumes ovate- oblong, cuspidate, cymbiform, closely imbricate, coriaceous, -chestnut-brown, many and closely veined, keel suberulous, margin and tip narrowly hyaline; stam. 2-3, fil. broadly ‘linear, anth. linear, =4 in.; nut oblong, narrowed into a subu- late beak half as long as itself or more, obscurely trigonous, -ventrally concave, dorsally convex, pale and corky in the lower half, brown above it, style jointed on the beak of the nut, capillary, entire or 2—3-toothed.

Moist region, very rare. Galle, Kornagalle, Lunugala, Uva. Fl > Sept., &c.

Also in India, Burma, China, Malaya, Australia.

Resembles Kyllinga monocephala.


18 Cyperacee. [ Cyperus.

2. ©. Iria,* LZ. Sp. Pl. 67 (1753). Wel-hiri, S.

C. Santonict, Rottb. Moon, Cat. 6. . Thw. Enum. 344. C. P. 811.

Fl. B. Ind. vi. 606. Rottb. lc. t. 9. f.